What Is Head Injury And Its Types

What Is Head Injury And Its Types


A head injury refers to any injury in the area of your skull, scalp, or brain. It can range from a small bruise or bump to a severe or traumatic injury of the brain. Scalp wounds, concussions, and skull fractures are included in the head injuries that are common.

The treatments and consequences of the injury can vary. It also depends on the severity and causes of injury. Head injuries can be open or closed. A close head injury refers to an injury that does not bruise or break the area of your skull.

But an open or penetrating injury of the head breaks the area of your skull and scalp and enters the part of your brain. One cannot access the seriousness of head injury by just looking at it. There are some small head injuries that cause excessive bleeding.

But some major injuries do not cause bleeding even. It is important to see a doctor for better treatment for all head injuries.

Major Head Injuries Types

There are many types of head injuries that vary in people according to the severity of the injury. We have enlisted the major head injury types here.


A hematoma refers to the clotting or collection of the blood present in the outer area of blood vessels. If a hematoma occurs in the area of the brain then it can cause serious consequences. Clotting builds up pressure inside the area of your skull.

It can cause people to lose the level of consciousness. Moreover, it can also lead to permanent damage to the brain.


A hemorrhage refers to uncontrollable bleeding. Bleeding can occur in the space present around your brain called a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Bleeding can also be present inside the tissues of your brain which is called intracerebral hemorrhage.

People often suffer vomiting or headaches in subarachnoid hemorrhages. Intracerebral hemorrhages severity is associated with the quantity of bleeding. The amount of bleeding can build up the pressure with the passage of time.


A concussion refers to a condition in which an impact on your head causes any brain injury. Some injuries hit the hard walls present around your skull. Forces of deceleration or sudden acceleration can also harm the areas of your brain.

The loss of brain function that is associated with the level of your consciousness is not permanent. But if concussions are repeated then people may suffer permanent damage to the brain.


Any brain injury can cause swelling or edema. Major injuries induce swelling of the tissues of the brain present in its surrounding areas. But edema is more severe if it occurs in the brain. Skull cannot be stretched to accommodate the edema or swelling.

It builds up the pressure inside your brain. The pressure presses your brain against the skull.

Fracture Of Skull

Bone marrow is not present in the skull unlike other bones of your body that contains bone marrow. It makes the area of the skull much stronger so it’s tough to break it. The broken skull cannot absorb the blow impact that increases the probability of damage to your brain.

Diffuse Axonal Injury

A diffuse axonal injury or sheer injury refers to the injury of the brain that damages the cells of the brain but does not include bleeding. The damage of brain cells reduces the functioning of these cells. It can lead to more damage or causes swelling.

You can say that is one of the dangerous head injury types. Diffuse axonal injury can cause severe damage to the brain of people, even death in some cases.

Symptoms Of Head Injuries

More blood vessels are present in the area of the head as compared to other body parts. Bleeding is an important concern if it’s present on the brain surface or inner side of the brain. All head injuries do not induce bleeding.

It is important to have information about the symptoms of head injuries. Symptoms of head injuries do appear in all the conditions. Monitor the symptoms daily after getting a head injury. Following are some common symptoms of minor head injuries.

  • Lightheadedness
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Mild confusion
  • Spinning sensation
  • Continuous ringing in the ears 

Severe head injury symptoms sometimes include the minor head injury symptoms that are given below.

  • Seizures
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Vomiting
  • Memory loss
  • Coordination or balance issues
  • The inability of eye focus
  • Abnormal movements of the eye
  • Severe disorientation
  • Muscle control loss
  • Severe and persistent headache
  • Fluid leaking from nose or ear